Leaving the Napoleonic period behind, the mid to late 19th Century saw a wide variety of conflicts between most of the nations and states of Europe. In northern Europe, Denmark and Prussian engaged in a war over the Schleswig-Holstein region and Britain, France and Russia clashed in the Crimea. Further south saw Austria, France and Prussia fighting for many years over German plans for unification, whilst the Italian states clashed with Austria over similar issues.
The First Schleswig War was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany, contesting the issue of who should control the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The war, which lasted from 1848 to 1851, also involved troops from Prussia and Sweden. Ultimately, under international pressure, the Prussians had to withdraw their forces. As a result, the war ended in a Danish victory over the rebels but a second conflict, the Second Schleswig War, erupted in 1864.
The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to March 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire. The French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense.
This range is currently not stocked because it is scheduled to be resculpted in late 2020. If you want items from the current range, please use the Contact Us form to let us know (include the stock numbers and quantity) and we will get in touch about making a special order for you. For more information you can check out the Pendraken forum at Pendrakenforum.co.uk under Pendraken News & Info! / General Pendraken / Crimean Range.
This small range covers some of the troop types in the Italian War of 1859, fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire, and which played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification. France and Sardinia had agreed to carve up Italy between them but Austria disagreed, delivering an ultimatum to Sardinia. Upon their refusal, the war began on 26 April and Austria invaded the Kingdom of Sardinia.
The invasion was stopped by the arrival of French troops and the Austrians were defeated at the Battle of Magenta on 4 June. The Franco-Sardinian victory at the Battle of Solferino on 24 June resulted in the end of the war and the signing of the Armistice of Villafranca on 12 July.
The period between 1864 and 1871 saw three wars that resulted in the unification of Germany. In essence, this period saw the formation of a German state under the influence of Prussia, guided by its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck. The start of this unification began with the Schleswig-Holstein War of 1864, the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and ending with the unification of the German states after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro. Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, it originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism. Additional factors included Russian hopes of recovering territorial losses suffered during the Crimean War, re-establishing itself in the Black Sea and supporting the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire. The Russian-led coalition won the war. As a result, Russia succeeded in claiming several provinces in the Caucasus and also annexed the Budjak region. The principalities of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro, each of whom had had de facto sovereignty for some time, formally proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire. After almost five centuries of Ottoman domination, the Bulgarian state was re-established as the Principality of Bulgaria. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 also allowed Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and Great Britain to take over Cyprus.
Various items to go with Pendraken's extensive 19th Century European ranges, including engineers, wood stacks and casualty markers.